lesson by sketching the outline of Tokugawa history, touching on politics, economics, society, and culture and introducing some historical debates regarding the Tokugawa period. Distinctive development also occurred in the fine arts and crafts. While many wealthy merchants enjoyed luxurious lifestyles in cooperation with warrior rulers, the city poor, driven to the edge of starvation by the rising prices of rice and other commodities, often rioted, plundering and destroying rice shops and pawnshops. grew, new forms of entertainment emerged in the form of literature, drama, and Updated June 21, 2019 The Tokugawa Shogunate defined modern Japanese history by centralizing the power of the nation's government and uniting its people. The art of the tea ceremony came to be monopolized by the house heads of the various schools, fostering the development of the “profession” of tea master. Okuni kabuki, named for the female dancing troupe led by Izumo Okuni, became popular at the turn of the 17th century and is conventionally regarded as the origin of this dramatic form. Yamato decline and the introduction of Buddhism, The idealized government of Prince Shōtoku, Kamakura culture: the new Buddhism and its influence, The Muromachi (or Ashikaga) period (1338–1573), The Kemmu Restoration and the dual dynasties. This investigation of the economy and cultural politics of Sensōji, however, shows that its culture of prayer and play reflected changes taking place in Tokugawa Japan, particularly in the city of Edo. It takes students from the days of the shogunate-the feudal overlordship of the Tokugawa family-through the modernizing revolution launched by midlevel samurai in the late nineteenth century; the adoption of Western hairstyles, clothing, and military organization; and the nation's first experiments with mass democracy after World War I. Japanese thinkers of the 17th century could hardly have been expected to fully ingest a foreign political philosophy already several hundred years old, and challenges to orthodox Chu Hsi thought were many. He also wrote more than 30 kabuki plays. A strictly feudalistic time in Japanese history, society was divided into four social classes-the warrior, the artisan, the farmer, and the merchant. The people also read haiku, a 5-7-5 The Tokugawa (or Edo) period brought 250 years of stability to Japan. This article explores the relationships between ritual, material culture, and political authority in early modern Japan by focusing on the Japanese tea ceremony, a highly formalized socio-cultural activity elaborated from the customs related to the consumption of powdered green tea. Communications and transportation also developed for the circulation of such goods, thanks to the earlier efforts of various daimyo to maximize production in their domains and to the increased mobility caused by the sankin kōtai system. Ultimately, such rural conditions led to major outbreaks of violence. This Edo form of kabuki seemed to suit the rowdy elements of society; indeed the word kabuki itself (using different Chinese ideograms), meaning “inclined,” was first used by wild gangs of outrageously dressed young men called kabukimono. Ultimately, women were banned from kabuki, and actors and prostitutes separated into distinct quarters. The compositions of Chikamatsu’s later years seek the motif of tragedy in the fact that this giri, while proof that people have humanity, cannot be thoroughly achieved because of their immorality and lack of principle. The Tokugawa Period set many foundations for Japanese culture, including those in religion and art. Both the old ceremonies of the imperial court and the various forms of warrior etiquette developed by the successive bakufu were codified, studied, and even extended to the common people, helping to shape manners throughout the country. About the turn of the 17th century, the Jōrurihime monogatari (a type of romantic ballad), which drew on the traditions of the medieval narrative story, was for the first time arranged as a form of dramatic literature accompanied by puppetry and the samisen (a lutelike musical instrument). The philosophy of yet another Sung thinker, Wang Yang-ming, also held a special place in Confucian circles in the early Edo period. Japanese Society and Culture Under the Tokugawa Shogunate. The early and mid-Edo periods produced many remarkable figures in the fine arts and crafts. Thus he argued that the separation of the four classes of society was in accord with the teachings of Confucius. Kabuki drama also developed in the early Edo period. The Tokugawa ruled Japan from 1603 to 1868, a period … Indeed, Japanese customs in dress, food, and housing became established and somewhat standardized during the Edo period. How did life for merchants change during peacetime? Distinctions between the statuses of warriors, farmers, artisans, and merchants were strictly enforced, but the distinction between the samurai and the other three classes was especially strict. The most impactful cultural policy of the Tokugawa was sakoku, translated roughly as “country in chains”. Unformatted text preview: Culture and Politics in East Asia: Tokugawa Japan and Qing China Tokugawa Japan Overview Unification of Japan Divisions of Power Agricultural Transformations Commercial Revolution The Floating World of Urban Japan Neo-Confucianism Christianity and Dutch Learning Unification of Japan 1500s in Japan = period of civil disorder Japanese military leaders (shoguns) … In theory the Shogun was a temporary stand-in for the emperor, but in reality the emperor was little more than a figurehead. This collection examines the impact of East Asian religion and culture on the public sphere, defined as an idealized discursive arena that mediates the official and private spheres. extravagant postures. Tokugawa Period Economy and Society Secondary Source: 1. Fujiwara Seika is regarded as the father of Tokugawa Neo-Confucianism, lecturing even to Ieyasu himself. As a result, commerce was promoted and cities developed. As Japan entered the 18th century, the bakuhan system began to show signs of weakness. where Japanese culture continued to flourish. Thus, the bakuhan system was firmly solidified by the second half of the 17th century. Both rich and poor benefited from the flowering of Japanese culture. merchants or the hardships of life. This activity radiated outward to the various daimyo castle towns and, inevitably, into the countryside as well. Few farmers, however, prospered through producing commercial goods, and the majority of peasants remained impoverished. In 1633, the Tokugawa government barred their citizens from leaving the country, cut off communications with almost all other countries, and tightly censored what cultural products could be brought in from abroad. Despite the popularity of these new theatrical forms, traditional arts of nō drama, the tea ceremony, and flower arrangement also reached new stages of development in the period. Tokugawa Society and Culture 2. Kallie Szczepanski. Kabuki now developed from its previous dancing-act form into a theatrical form centred on a dramatic plot with realistic acting. Name: Date: Block: Tokugawa Period Travel At the end of a long period of civil war, the Tokugawa clan emerged in 1603 as the pre-eminent political family in Japan. With a population of with more than one million, the rise of large commercial centers increased employment opportunities for … our editorial process. It was allowed once again, but only after substantial reform, in which even women’s parts were played by adult males (who were distinguished from the wakashū by shaved forelocks). The extremely diverse economic and social life of these cities was based upon a money economy in which people and produce were constantly exchanged. 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